Module 3: Networking 1

IP Addressing

The problem discussed in the video is the complexity and challenges associated with managing IP addresses and routing at scale in an AWS environment. As companies grow and their networks expand, tracking IP addresses across multiple VPCs and subnets becomes increasingly difficult, especially when using manual methods like spreadsheets. This manual tracking can lead to errors, limited visibility, and inefficiencies in managing IP allocations and ensuring network connectivity.

To solve this problem, AWS offers Amazon VPC IP Address Manager (IPAM) and AWS Cloud WAN. IPAM helps automate the planning, tracking, and monitoring of IP addresses across regions and accounts, reducing the need for manual updates and improving scalability. It allows for hierarchical design and business rules to automate IP assignments and avoid conflicts. AWS Cloud WAN further enhances this by providing automated, dynamic global routing, simplifying the creation and management of global networks with centralized control.

  • 00:00 – Introduction by Du’An Lightfoot, covering the session agenda and topics.
  • 02:15 – Discussion on IP addressing at scale and initial setup on AWS with single VPCs.
  • 05:30 – Explanation of the challenges faced as networks grow, including tracking IP addresses across multiple VPCs and subnets.
  • 07:00 – Problems with using spreadsheets for IP management and the need for automation.
  • 10:30 – Introduction to Amazon VPC IP Address Manager (IPAM) and its features.
  • 13:00 – Detailed explanation of how IPAM works, including hierarchical structure and business rules.
  • 18:00 – Real-world example of automating IP address assignments with IPAM.
  • 22:00 – Transition to discussing AWS Cloud WAN for automating global routing.
  • 25:00 – Detailed look at Cloud WAN architecture and its integration with IPAM.
  • 32:00 – Example use case of Cloud WAN with VPCs and data centers.
  • 40:00 – Demonstration of creating a global network with Cloud WAN and automating routing.
  • 48:00 – Summary and benefits of using IPAM and Cloud WAN together.
  • 51:00 – Additional resources and related blog posts for further reading.

For more information, refer to the detailed blog post linked in the video description.

VPC Fundamentals

In this breakout session, Du’An Lightfoot and Ankit Chadha from AWS address the challenge of managing Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) IP addressing at scale and provide a comprehensive solution using Amazon VPC IP Address Manager (IPAM) and AWS Cloud WAN.

The Challenge:

Managing IP addresses manually using spreadsheets becomes impractical as the network scales. For instance, a business might start with a single VPC and a few subnets but can quickly expand to hundreds of VPCs and subnets across multiple regions, making manual tracking cumbersome and error-prone. This manual process involves updating spreadsheets, dealing with IP address conflicts, and ensuring proper routing between VPCs, leading to inefficiencies and connectivity issues.

The Solution:

The proposed solution utilizes Amazon VPC IPAM and AWS Cloud WAN to automate IP address management and global network routing. IPAM enables users to plan, track, and monitor IP addresses across multiple regions and accounts, automating IP assignments and monitoring utilization. AWS Cloud WAN facilitates dynamic multi-region routing and simplifies global network management.

By integrating these tools, the solution automates the configuration of VPC routing tables and provides end-to-end visibility and control over IP address allocation and network routing. This automation reduces manual updates, minimizes IP conflicts, and enhances network scalability and efficiency.

Timestamps and Key Discussion Points:

  • 00:00 – 03:00: Introduction by Du’An Lightfoot and agenda overview.
  • 03:01 – 06:30: Explanation of VPC IP addressing at scale and the initial manual management process.
  • 06:31 – 10:30: Challenges with manual IP address management using spreadsheets.
  • 10:31 – 15:30: Introduction of Amazon VPC IPAM and its benefits for automated IP address management.
  • 15:31 – 20:00: Detailed explanation of setting up IPAM, including hierarchical structure and business rules.
  • 20:01 – 25:30: Real-world workflow of IPAM and its integration with on-premises deployments.
  • 25:31 – 30:00: Transition to AWS Cloud WAN and its role in automating global network routing.
  • 30:01 – 35:00: Overview of Cloud WAN architecture and use cases.
  • 35:01 – 40:00: Demonstration of creating a global network with Cloud WAN and its integration with VPC IPAM.
  • 40:01 – 45:00: Event-driven automation solution for dynamic routing updates using Lambda and EventBridge.
  • 45:01 – 50:00: Deep dive into the event and rule configurations for the automated solution.
  • 50:01 – 55:00: Summary of the solution and considerations for different network architectures.
  • 55:01 – 58:00: Information on accessing the solution’s GitHub repository and related resources.
  • 58:01 – End: Closing remarks and call to complete the session survey.

For more detailed information, please refer to the video here.

VPC Traffic Security

The video covers the problem of monitoring and managing traffic within Amazon VPCs and introduces VPC Traffic Mirroring as a solution. VPC Traffic Mirroring allows users to capture and inspect network traffic for various use cases like content inspection, threat detection, troubleshooting, and performance monitoring. Before the introduction of Traffic Mirroring, customers primarily relied on flow logs, which capture metadata of network traffic but not the actual packets. This new feature enables capturing the actual packets, providing deeper insights into network traffic.


Monitoring network traffic within VPCs was challenging due to reliance on flow logs, which only provide metadata rather than full packet captures. This limitation hindered in-depth traffic analysis, content inspection, and threat detection. Additionally, manual management of third-party agents for traffic monitoring was complex and could impact performance.


VPC Traffic Mirroring solves these challenges by allowing users to capture and analyze actual network packets. It provides the ability to monitor traffic directly from the network interface, ensuring high fidelity and security. Users can set up traffic mirroring sessions to specify which traffic to mirror and where to send it for analysis, using either custom-built analyzers or solutions from AWS partners available in the AWS Marketplace.

  • 00:00 – Introduction to VPC Traffic Mirroring and its use cases.
  • 02:15 – Overview of VPC networking and how customers previously used flow logs.
  • 06:00 – Detailed explanation of VPC Traffic Mirroring and its components.
  • 12:30 – Creating and managing Traffic Mirroring sessions.
  • 20:00 – Performance considerations and best practices for using Traffic Mirroring.
  • 26:00 – Examples of using Traffic Mirroring with partner solutions and custom analyzers.
  • 30:00 – Advanced deployment options and configurations for Traffic Mirroring.
  • 38:00 – Real-world use cases and benefits of Traffic Mirroring.

For more detailed information and examples, refer to the blog post and resources linked in the video description.

Control Traffic to Subnets Using Network ACLs

Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) provides a logically isolated virtual network that you define in the AWS Cloud. This virtual network closely resembles a traditional network that you would operate in your own data center, but with the scalability and infrastructure benefits of AWS. You can create a VPC with a designated IP address range, add subnets, route tables, and gateways, and launch AWS resources into these subnets.

Challenges and Solutions:

  1. Isolated Network Configuration: Creating a secure, isolated network environment can be complex. Amazon VPC allows you to create an isolated network within the AWS Cloud with the flexibility to configure subnets, route tables, gateways, and security settings, providing a secure and scalable network environment.
  2. Internet Access and Connectivity: Ensuring controlled internet access for resources within a VPC is challenging. Amazon VPC allows you to control internet access through internet gateways, NAT devices, and egress-only internet gateways for IPv6 traffic, ensuring secure and managed connectivity.
  3. Inter-VPC Communication: Connecting resources across different VPCs securely can be complicated. VPC peering and AWS Transit Gateway solutions allow for secure routing of traffic between VPCs, enabling efficient communication while maintaining isolation.
  4. Scalability and Management of IP Addresses: Managing IP addresses in a large-scale environment requires planning and tracking. Amazon VPC provides IP Address Manager (IPAM) to simplify the planning, tracking, and monitoring of IP addresses across VPCs.
  5. Traffic Monitoring and Security: Monitoring traffic for security and operational insights is essential. VPC Flow Logs capture IP traffic data, and Traffic Mirroring allows deep packet inspection for enhanced security monitoring.

Problem/Challenge: Isolated Network Configuration

Solution: Amazon VPC allows you to create a virtual network that is logically isolated from other networks in the AWS Cloud. You can specify an IP address range for the VPC, add subnets, route tables, and gateways, and launch AWS resources into these subnets. This allows for a secure and scalable network environment.

Problem/Challenge: Internet Access and Connectivity

Solution: Amazon VPC includes features like internet gateways and NAT devices to control internet access for resources within the VPC. You can configure route tables to direct traffic and use security groups and network ACLs to control inbound and outbound traffic. For IPv6 traffic, you can use an egress-only internet gateway to ensure secure connectivity.

Problem/Challenge: Inter-VPC Communication

Solution: VPC peering and AWS Transit Gateway allow for secure and efficient routing of traffic between VPCs. VPC peering enables direct communication between two VPCs, while AWS Transit Gateway acts as a central hub for connecting multiple VPCs and on-premises networks.

Problem/Challenge: Scalability and Management of IP Addresses

Solution: Amazon VPC provides the IP Address Manager (IPAM) to help plan, track, and monitor IP addresses. IPAM allows you to allocate IP address CIDRs to VPCs using specific business rules, ensuring efficient IP address management across your AWS workloads.

Problem/Challenge: Traffic Monitoring and Security

Solution: VPC Flow Logs capture information about IP traffic going to and from network interfaces in your VPC, providing visibility into network traffic for security and operational purposes. Traffic Mirroring allows you to capture and inspect network traffic for enhanced security monitoring and troubleshooting.

AWS Networking Fundamentals

The problem/challenge discussed in the video is how to build and manage networking within Amazon Web Services (AWS) environments, particularly for those who are new to AWS networking or have limited experience with it. The video addresses this by providing a comprehensive guide on setting up a Virtual Private Cloud (VPC), which includes IP addressing, subnets, routing, and security measures such as security groups and Network Access Control Lists (NACLs). The solution is explained through a step-by-step process, including the configuration of VPC components, connecting VPCs to the internet, securing network traffic, and advanced topics like VPC peering and transit gateways for connecting multiple VPCs and on-premises environments.

  • 00:00 – 01:20: Introduction by Perry Wald and Tom Adamski, explaining the session’s focus on network fundamentals in AWS.
  • 01:20 – 05:00: Explanation of VPC and its default components, including IP ranges, subnets, availability zones, routers, and security groups.
  • 05:00 – 08:30: Detailed discussion on IP addressing, private IP ranges, and subnet creation.
  • 08:30 – 12:00: Routing within VPCs, including default route tables and internet gateways.
  • 12:00 – 16:30: Setting up internet and NAT gateways for public and private subnets, allowing internet access while maintaining security.
  • 16:30 – 20:30: Overview of security in VPCs, focusing on security groups and their stateful nature.
  • 20:30 – 23:00: Introduction to NACLs and their use for coarse-grained network control.
  • 23:00 – 26:00: Flow logs for monitoring and troubleshooting network traffic within VPCs.
  • 26:00 – 28:30: Brief mention of DNS services in AWS and Route 53 for managing DNS resolution.
  • 28:30 – 32:00: Tom Adamski discusses connecting multiple VPCs using VPC peering and transit gateways.
  • 32:00 – 36:00: Options for connecting VPCs to on-premises environments using site-to-site VPN and AWS Direct Connect.
  • 36:00 – 42:00: Advanced topics like VPC sharing, VPC endpoints, and Amazon Global Accelerator for optimizing network performance.
  • 42:00 – End: Conclusion and Q&A session, inviting attendees to the AWS village for further networking questions.

Related links in the video description:

VPC’s and Subnets

Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) allows users to create isolated virtual networks within the AWS cloud. A key challenge is managing and securing network resources within these virtual environments. This is addressed by features such as subnets, route tables, internet gateways, and VPN connections, enabling precise control over network traffic, both internal and external.

Amazon VPC provides an isolated environment for deploying AWS resources, tackling the problem of network segmentation and security. Subnets, route tables, and gateways are critical for defining traffic flow. Subnets can be public or private, controlling internet access, while route tables direct traffic. Internet gateways connect subnets to the internet, and VPN connections link VPCs to on-premises networks securely. This modular architecture ensures flexibility and security in cloud networking.

For more details, refer to the sections on subnets, route tables, and internet access.

How Do I Modify the IPv4 CIDR Block of My Amazon VPC?

Amazon VPC (Virtual Private Cloud) allows users to create isolated networks within the AWS cloud, addressing the challenge of network segmentation and security. Users can specify IP address ranges, create subnets, configure route tables, and manage gateways to control network traffic and connectivity.

The problem of managing IP address ranges within a VPC is solved through the use of CIDR blocks, which define IP ranges for VPCs and subnets. When creating a VPC, you can assign it an IPv4 CIDR block and optionally an IPv6 CIDR block. These blocks determine the IP address range available within the VPC, ensuring logical isolation from other networks. For example, default VPCs are assigned a CIDR range of​ (Amazon AWS Documentation)​​ (Amazon Web Services, Inc.)​.

AWS allows up to five IP address ranges for IPv4 and up to five IPv6 CIDR blocks per VPC. Publicly routable IP blocks can be used but are not directly accessible from the internet unless routed through a Virtual Private Gateway​ (Amazon Web Services, Inc.)​​ (Amazon AWS Documentation)​. This setup ensures that internal and external traffic is managed securely and efficiently.

For detailed information, refer to sections on VPC IP address range, CIDR block restrictions, and Default VPCs on the AWS documentation.

Bring Your Own IP Address to the Cloud

Discusses the challenges of maintaining consistent IP addresses during cloud migration and how AWS addresses these challenges with the “Bring Your Own IP” feature.

The Problem: Organizations often face difficulties when migrating applications to AWS due to the need to maintain consistent IP addresses. This issue is critical for customers who rely on the reputation of their IP addresses, have whitelisted IPs with partners, or have legacy applications with hard-coded IP dependencies.

Solution: AWS introduces the “Bring Your Own IP” (BYOIP) feature, which allows customers to bring their own IP addresses to AWS. This feature supports the following use cases:

  1. IP Reputation Management: Customers who send commercial emails can maintain their IP reputation.
  2. Whitelisting: Customers with whitelisted IPs can avoid the hassle of re-establishing whitelists with partners.
  3. Legacy Application Migration: Applications with hard-coded IP dependencies can be moved without breaking dependencies.
  4. Redundancy and Disaster Recovery: Customers can set up AWS as a hot standby, maintaining their own IP addresses for failover scenarios.

The implementation involves several steps, including registering IP prefixes, creating route origin authorizations (ROA), and using AWS CLI commands to provision and advertise these IP addresses within AWS.

Timestamps and Links:

  • Introduction and Overview (0:001:30):
    • Introduction by Matt Lewis and Andy.
    • Explanation of VPC foundations and application building on AWS.
  • VPC Components and Connectivity (1:307:50):
    • Detailed explanation of VPC, subnets, route tables, and internet gateways.
    • Discussion on public and private subnets and their connectivity.
  • Elastic IP and Public Address Representation (7:5010:15):
    • Explanation of Elastic IPs and their role in representing private addresses publicly.
  • Introduction to Bring Your Own IP (10:1512:00):
    • Problem statement and introduction to BYOIP by Anupam.
  • Reasons for Building BYOIP (12:0016:40):
    • Explanation of the key use cases and reasons for developing BYOIP.
  • How to Use BYOIP (16:4019:00):
    • Steps to get started with BYOIP, including prefix requirements and authorization.
  • Authorization Process (19:0023:00):
    • Detailed steps for creating ROAs and authorizing AWS to advertise the IP ranges.
  • Provisioning IP Ranges (23:0030:30):
    • CLI commands and console demonstration for provisioning and advertising IP ranges.
  • Creating Elastic IPs from BYOIP Pool (30:3036:00):
    • Steps to allocate specific or random IPs from the BYOIP pool.
  • Deprovisioning and Reprovisioning IP Ranges (36:0041:00):
    • Steps for withdrawing advertisements and deprovisioning IP ranges.
  • Q&A Session (41:0048:00):
    • Answering common questions about prefix specifications, regional movement of IPs, and GA transition.

Related Links:

One to Many: Evolving VPC Design

The blog post “One to Many: Evolving VPC Design” discusses the challenges of designing and managing Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) environments as organizations scale. The primary challenge is maintaining network isolation, security, and efficient resource access while scaling VPCs to support multi-tenant environments and integration with on-premises resources. AWS provides solutions like subnets, security groups, NAT gateways, and VPC endpoints to address these challenges, ensuring flexible and secure VPC architectures that can evolve with organizational needs.

The problem of managing scalable VPC environments is solved through:

  1. Subnet Design: Creating public and private subnets to control access to resources. Public subnets are connected to the internet via Internet Gateways, while private subnets use NAT gateways for outbound internet access without exposing resources directly to the internet.

  2. Security Groups and Network ACLs: Implementing stateful firewalls to control inbound and outbound traffic to EC2 instances and other resources.

  3. NAT Gateways: Using highly available, managed NAT gateways for internet access from private subnets, ensuring scalability and reducing cross-AZ traffic.

  4. VPC Endpoints: Leveraging Gateway and Interface Endpoints for connecting to AWS services without traversing the public internet, enhancing security and reducing latency.

  5. VPC Sharing: Utilizing AWS Resource Access Manager to share VPC resources across multiple AWS accounts, centralizing network management, and reducing costs.

For detailed information, refer to the sections on subnet design, security groups, NAT gateways, and VPC sharing in the blog post.

VPC Sharing: Key Considerations and Best Practices

The blog post “VPC Sharing: Key Considerations and Best Practices” addresses the challenge of managing multiple AWS accounts and VPCs efficiently. The solution involves using VPC sharing to centralize network management, reduce overhead, and improve resource utilization. AWS Resource Access Manager (RAM) facilitates sharing subnets across accounts, enhancing security and simplifying network configurations. Best practices include using dedicated subnets for shared infrastructure, leveraging AWS Transit Gateway for connectivity, and implementing strict security zoning.

Challenges and Solutions:

  1. Subnet Management: Dedicated subnets for each VPC participant reduce IP exhaustion risks and ensure isolation.
  2. Security Zoning: Implementing multiple security zones within a shared VPC using Network ACLs and AWS Transit Gateway enhances security segmentation.
  3. Resource Sharing: AWS RAM allows controlled sharing of VPC resources, streamlining management across accounts.
  4. Connectivity: AWS Transit Gateway and PrivateLink facilitate secure communication between VPCs and on-premises networks.
  5. Logging and Monitoring: VPC Flow Logs and GuardDuty enhance monitoring and security across shared environments.

For more detailed insights, refer to the blog post.

Launch Amazon EMR with a Static Private IP in a Private Subnet

The blog post “Field Notes: Launch Amazon EMR with a Static Private IP in a Private Subnet” addresses the challenge of assigning static private IPs to Amazon EMR clusters to comply with corporate firewall policies that restrict access to specific IPs. This is solved by using bootstrap actions to set static private IPs for the primary (master) and core nodes, enabling secure communication with on-premises systems.

Challenges and Solutions:

  1. Static IP Requirement: Corporate firewalls often restrict access to specific IPs. This is solved by setting static private IPs to Amazon EMR nodes using bootstrap actions.
  2. Private Subnet Configuration: Placing the EMR cluster in a private subnet ensures high security. Communication is facilitated through AWS Direct Connect, VPN, or VPC peering.
  3. Security Group Rules: Specific IPs are added to the inbound rules of the security group to allow access from EMR nodes.
  4. Automation: The bootstrap action script automates the assignment of static private IPs during cluster launch.

For a detailed walkthrough, refer to the blog post.

Advanced VPC Design and New Capabilities for Amazon VPC

The problem/challenge discussed in the video is how to design and implement advanced Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) configurations in Amazon Web Services (AWS), along with understanding the new capabilities and features added to VPC over the past year. The video provides a detailed guide on advanced VPC design, covering various aspects such as VPC architecture, routing, security, and connectivity. It also introduces new features like Gateway Load Balancer, AWS Network Firewall, and updates to existing services like VPC Flow Logs and Transit Gateway, showing how these features enhance network performance, security, and scalability.

  • 00:00 – 01:00: Introduction to the session on advanced VPC design and new capabilities by Matt Lehwess.
  • 01:00 – 04:00: Overview of basic VPC architecture, CIDR ranges, subnets, and instances.
  • 04:00 – 08:00: Explanation of public and private subnets, internet gateways, NAT gateways, and route tables.
  • 08:00 – 10:00: Introduction to gateway endpoints for private connectivity to services like S3 and DynamoDB.
  • 10:00 – 12:30: Discussion on VPC peering and Transit Gateway for connecting multiple VPCs and on-premises environments.
  • 12:30 – 15:00: Explanation of VPC Flow Logs and Traffic Mirroring for monitoring and visibility.
  • 15:00 – 18:00: Introduction to the Gateway Load Balancer and its benefits for traffic management and fault tolerance.
  • 18:00 – 20:30: Overview of the new AWS Network Firewall and its capabilities.
  • 20:30 – 22:00: Updates on AWS Client VPN and Site-to-Site VPN services.
  • 22:00 – 24:30: Discussion on Transit Gateway updates, including cross-region peering and route analyzer.
  • 24:30 – 26:00: Introduction to 400 Gbps networking for p4d instances and its applications.
  • 26:00 – End: Honorable mentions of additional updates like Bring Your Own IPv6, IPv6 for Network Load Balancer, and Amazon VPC Prefix Lists. Conclusion and related sessions.

Related links in the video description:

Secure Your Workloads with NAT Gateway

The video explains what a Network Address Translation (NAT) gateway is and why it is necessary for cloud workloads. It covers the problem of needing internet access for tasks like operating system patches and application upgrades while ensuring that instances are not exposed to unwanted access from the internet. The solution is to use a NAT gateway, which allows instances in private subnets to access the internet without having a public IP address, thus preventing incoming connections from the internet.

  • 00:00 – 00:45: Introduction to the need for internet access in cloud workloads.
  • 00:45 – 01:45: Explanation of using public subnets and public IP addresses, and the associated security risks.
  • 01:45 – 02:30: Solution: Using a NAT gateway to allow internet access without exposing instances to the internet.
  • 02:30 – 03:30: Process of creating a NAT gateway and associating it with a public subnet and an Elastic IP (EIP).
  • 03:30 – 05:00: Configuring route tables to route traffic through the NAT gateway.
  • 05:00 – 06:00: Security benefits of using a NAT gateway to block unsolicited incoming traffic.
  • 06:00 – End: Summary of the benefits and features of the NAT gateway, including its scalability and ease of setup.

Related links in the video description:

VPC Traffic Mirroring – Capture & Inspect Network Traffic

The blog post “New – VPC Traffic Mirroring – Capture & Inspect Network Traffic” introduces VPC Traffic Mirroring, which allows users to capture and inspect network traffic within their VPCs. This feature addresses challenges in detecting network anomalies, gaining operational insights, meeting compliance requirements, and troubleshooting issues. By using mirror sources, targets, and filters, users can route specific traffic to monitoring and analysis tools, enhancing network visibility and security.

Challenges and Solutions:

  1. Network & Security Anomalies: Capture traffic for real-time detection of attacks.
  2. Operational Insights: Gain better network visibility to inform security decisions.
  3. Compliance & Security Controls: Meet regulatory monitoring and logging requirements.
  4. Troubleshooting: Analyze traffic patterns to identify and resolve performance issues.

For detailed information, refer to the blog post.