DHCP is a technology that automates IP address assignment, streamlining network configuration.
Example: When a device connects to a network, DHCP assigns it an IP address, gateway, and DNS settings.
Why: DHCP simplifies network management by dynamically assigning IP addresses, reducing the need for manual configuration.
- When a device requests network access, it sends a DHCP discover request.
- This request is broadcast to all computers on the network.
- The DHCP server responds to the request, sending a DHCP offer to the device.
- The offer includes IP address, default gateway, DNS info, etc.
- The device can accept the offer with a DHCP request or decline it if other offers are received.
- If accepted, the DHCP server sends a DHCP acknowledgment, reserving the IP address.
- The server removes the assigned IP from its available pool.
- Occasionally, a server might not acknowledge a request, necessitating the process to start a new request
DHCP Lease Management:
- Default Lease: 8 days. After expiration, the client must renew its IP address.
- In Smaller Networks: The router often acts as the DHCP server, handling IP addressing without administrator intervention.
- Larger Networks: Dedicated DHCP servers manage IP addressing. Administrators configure address scopes for clients.
- Device for Address Assignment: DHCP server or router for local networks.
- Clients: Devices such as computers and printers that receive IP addresses.
- Protocol: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, used for communication between servers and clients.
DHCP Renewal and Release:
- Renewal Command: ipconfig /renew. Renews IP address from the available pool.
- Release Command: ipconfig /release. Releases IP address back to the pool.
Overall, DHCP automates IP address allocation, enhancing network efficiency and management.