Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)

DHCP is a technology that automates IP address assignment, streamlining network configuration.

Example: When a device connects to a network, DHCP assigns it an IP address, gateway, and DNS settings.

Why: DHCP simplifies network management by dynamically assigning IP addresses, reducing the need for manual configuration.

DHCP Flow:

  1. When a device requests network access, it sends a DHCP discover request.
  2. This request is broadcast to all computers on the network.
  3. The DHCP server responds to the request, sending a DHCP offer to the device.
  4. The offer includes IP address, default gateway, DNS info, etc.
  5. The device can accept the offer with a DHCP request or decline it if other offers are received.
  6. If accepted, the DHCP server sends a DHCP acknowledgment, reserving the IP address.
  7. The server removes the assigned IP from its available pool.
  8. Occasionally, a server might not acknowledge a request, necessitating the process to start a new request

DHCP Lease Management:

  • Default Lease: 8 days. After expiration, the client must renew its IP address.
  • In Smaller Networks: The router often acts as the DHCP server, handling IP addressing without administrator intervention.
  • Larger Networks: Dedicated DHCP servers manage IP addressing. Administrators configure address scopes for clients.

DHCP Components:

  1. Device for Address Assignment: DHCP server or router for local networks.
  2. Clients: Devices such as computers and printers that receive IP addresses.
  3. Protocol: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, used for communication between servers and clients.

DHCP Renewal and Release:

  • Renewal Command: ipconfig /renew. Renews IP address from the available pool.
  • Release Command: ipconfig /release. Releases IP address back to the pool.

Overall, DHCP automates IP address allocation, enhancing network efficiency and management.